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  • Wildland Fire Book on Books (print-ready booklet)
  • Wildland Fire Book on Books (Index by author only)
  • Aebi, Tania with Bernadette Brennan. Maiden Voyage. Random House. 1996.
    The account of an 18 year old New York City woman's solo sailing voyage around the world. With little experience, she became the youngest person to ever circumnavigate the globe. (retired in 2011)
  • Axelrod, Alan. Elizabeth I CEO: Strategic Lessons from the Leader Who Built an Empire. Prentice Hall Press. 2000.
    This book starts with an overview of Elizabeth's life and 45-year reign as queen of England. The book then progresses to a series of lessons ("Stand-up for Those You Lead, Communicate Directly and Often, and Strength Always Communicates") that are illustrated by using examples from her reign. (retired in 2011)
  • Barker, Rocky. Scorched Earth: How the Fires of Yellowstone Changed America. Island Press. 2005.
    Using the history of firefighting in Yellowstone National Park and the watershed fire season of 1988, Barker, a journalist for The Idaho Statesman newspaper, explores the questions of when to fight fires and when to let them burn, and when firefighters should be sent to fight fire and at what cost. (retired in 2014)
  • *Blaber, Pete. The Mission, Men, and Me. Berkley. 2010
    Col. Pete Blaber (Ret.) was the commander of Delta Force until he retired in 2006. The author reveals his intimate knowledge of warfare: it's not the action-the blinding flash of a concussion grenade, or the stealthy approach of the night vision-clad commando-but the interaction, in the form of the way we think, the way we make decisions, and the way we operationalize those decisions, that provides the keys to success, and the truly meaningful lessons. (retired in 2014)
  • Blanchard, Kenneth H., William Oncken, Jr., and Hal Burrows. The One Minute Manager Meets the Monkey. William Morrow. 1989.
    If you've ever wondered how you got loaded down with other peoples business (Monkeys) this book gives you one possibility. The care and feeding of monkeys demands a lot of time and energy, so here you are shown how to give those monkeys to their rightful owners. (retired in 2005)
  • Bossidy, Larry, Ram Charan, and Charles Burck. Execution: The Art of Getting Things Done. Crown Business. 2002.
    This book defines the true meaning of leadership from an implementation point of view. It focuses on getting the job done and delivering results by clearly explaining how to bring together the critical elements (people, strategies, and operations) of any organization to make things happen. (retired in 2014)
  • Boukreev, Anatoli and G. Weston DeWalt. The Climb: Tragic Ambitions of Everest. St. Martins Press. 1998.
    A compelling account of the 1996 commercial expedition to the top of Mt. Everest that ended in tragedy. Boukreev, the head guide for Mountain Madness Expeditions, challenges many of the accounts of Into Thin Air, and details his account of the ill-fated expedition. (retired in 2011)
  • Buell, Thomas. Warrior Generals: Combat Leadership in the Civil War. Crown Publishing Group. 1996.
    Buell uses a general stereo-type for 6 civil war generals and follows them through their careers. Of interest in leadership styles and contrast is General George Thomas. Here you find a classic leader, solid professional, innovative in thinking outside the box in a hide bound traditional military. Generally a good read, pointed and critical with interesting authors notes on his research. (retired in 2005)
  • Cannon, Jeff and Jon. Leadership Lessons of the Navy Seals. McGraw-Hill. 2005.
    Battle-tested strategies for creating successful organizations and inspiring extraordinary results. How to build, prepare, and maintain the organization for the mission. (retired in 2011)
  • Collins, Larry and Dominique Lapierre. Freedom at Midnight. Simon & Schuster. 1975.
    This book tells the astonishing story of Mahatma Gandhi's organization and leadership of a massive, non-violent, grassroots campaign in his native India. He ultimately led one of the world's poorest nations to independence from the British Empire. (retired in 2011)
  • Cooley, Earl. Trimotor and Trail. Mountain Press Publishing. 1984.
    Cooley, who was one of the first smoke jumpers in 1940, provides an interesting personal account. There is a very thorough description with actual written statements from the survivors of the 1949 Mann-Gulch Fire Tragedy which killed 13 Missoula Smoke Jumpers. (retired in 2014)
  • Coram, Robert. Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War. Back Bay Books/Little, Brown and Company. 2002.
    The story of a military man with ferocious passion and intractable stubbornness who continually challenged shortsighted bureaucracy. John Boyd is remembered as the Fighter Pilot Instructor who defeated every challenger in less than 40 seconds. However, in one of the most startling and unknown stories of modern military history, the Air Force fighter pilot taught the U.S. Marine Corps how to fight war on the ground. His ideas led to America's swift and decisive victory in the Gulf War and foretold the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. (retired in 2014)
  • Covey, Stephen. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Simon & Schuster. 1989.
    Covey develops a step-by-step approach for living with integrity, honesty, and fairness that provides the foundation necessary to adapt to change and to take advantage of the opportunities change provides. (retired in 2005)
  • Davies, Gilbert W. and Florice M. Frank. Memorable Forest Fires: Stories by U.S. Forest Service Retirees. History Ink Books. 1997.
    Fighting forest fires the "old-school" way is the basis for the 200 memorable stories of U.S. Forest Service retirees. These accounts are dedicated to all those dedicated Forest Service and interagency firefighters who take their work seriously and safely with a true sense of urgency and a belief that firefighting was a part of their public service careers. (retired in 2014)
  • Department of the Army. Army Leadership: Be, Know, Do. Field Manual 22-100. 2001. On the Web at:
    The U.S. Army's basic leadership reference. This is an excellent reference for all aspects of leadership training. (retired in 2005)
  • *Dweck, Carol S. Ph.D. Mindset, the New Psychology of Success. Ballentine Books. 2008
    Dweck explains the psychology behind successful people, including their attitudes and beliefs about themselves and others. Anyone pursuing self improvement, better leadership skills and success in their careers and personal lives should read this book. (retired in 2014)
  • *Eagan, Timothy. The Big Burn: Teddy Roosevelt and the Fire that Saved America. Mariner Books. 2010.
    When Theodore Roosevelt vacated the Oval Office, he left a vast legacy of public lands under the stewardship of the newly created Forest Service. Immediately, political enemies of the conservation movement chipped away at the foundations of the untested agency, lobbying for a return of the land to private interests and development. Then, in 1910, several small wildfires in the Pacific Northwest merge into one massive, swift, and unstoppable blaze, and the Forest Service is pressed into a futile effort to douse the flames. Over 100 firefighters died, galvanizing public opinion in favor of the forests. (retired in 2014)
  • Fielder, Donald J. The Leadership Teachings of Geronimo: How 19 Defeated 5000. Sterling House. 2002.
    This book vividly links the modern leader/executive to the David versus Goliath strategies of Geronimo, one of the greatest chiefs in American history. (retired in 2011)
  • Flin, Rhona. Sitting in the Hot Seat. Wiley. 1996.
    Flin examines the selection, training, and assessment of individuals who are required to take the command role on an emergency incident. The emphasis is on the commander's relationship with the team. (retired in 2014)
  • Garvin, David A. Learning in Action: A Guide to Putting the Learning Organization to Work. Harvard Business School Press. 2000.
    Garvin introduces three modes of learning (intelligence gathering, experience, and experimentation) and shows how each mode is most effectively deployed. The approaches are brought to life through case studies of organizations; e.g., United States Army, Xerox, L.L.Bean, and GE. He gives an excellent discussion of U.S. Army's after-action review process. He, also, describes the leadership role junior and senior leaders must play to make learning a day-to-day reality in their organizations. (retired in 2014)
  • *Gawande, Atul. The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right. Metropolitan Books. 2009.
    This is a toppling revelation made all the more powerful by Gawande's skillful blend of anecdote and practical wisdom as he profiles his own experience as a surgeon and seeks out a wide range of other professions to show that a team is only as strong as its checklist-by his definition, a way of organizing that empowers people at all levels to put their best knowledge to use, communicate at crucial points, and get things done. (retired in 2014)
  • Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. Little Brown & Company. 2007.
    Gladwell weighs the factors that determine good decision making. Drawing on recent cognitive research, he concludes that those who quickly filter out extraneous information generally make better decisions than those who discount their first impressions. (retired in 2014)
  • Goleman, Daniel. Emotional Intelligence. Bantam Books. 1997.
    The author argues that there are important emotional skills that contribute to human intelligence and successful performance in the workplace. These skills include self-awareness and impulse control, persistence, zeal and self-motivation, empathy and social deftness. (retired in 2011)
  • Gonzalez, Laurence. Deep Survival: Who Lives, Who Dies, and Why. W.W. Norton & Company. 2003.
    Gonzalez looks at the physical and psychological elements that contribute to human performance and survival in emergency situations. A fascinating look at how and why some people survive emergencies and some don't. This book has lots of great information on the kind of human factors that we now recognize are critical to safe performance on the fireline. (retired in 2014)
  • *Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals-The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster. 2005.
    This is a story of leadership in time of emotional intensity and conflict. Lincoln knew how to assemble and lead a team. It is a multiple biography of the entire team of personal and political competitors that he put together to lead the country through its greatest crisis. The author profiles five of the key players, four of whom contended for the 1860 Republican presidential nomination and all of whom later worked together in Lincoln's cabinet. (retired in 2014)
  • Hackworth, David A. and Eilhys England. Steel My Soldiers' Hearts: The Hopeless to Hardcore Transformation of U.S. Army, 4th Battalion, 39th Infantry in Vietnam.
    Rugged Land. 2002.
    This account details a young Lieutenant Colonel's assignment to a poorly led battalion of draftees in the Mekong Delta 1969. This unit had one of the highest casualty rates and lowest morale in Vietnam at that time. Colonel Hackworth details his efforts at transforming this battalion. His discipline, training, and lead from the front style turns the misfits into effective warriors. (retired in 2005)
  • Harari, Oren. The Leadership Secrets of Powell. McGraw-Hill Companies. 2003.
    Excellent read that looks at defining and defending rational objectives and focusing on thinking outside the box. This book can teach us how to lead effectively following Colin Powell’s creed that the performance of the organization is the ultimate measure of the leader. The lessons of this book are profoundly useful in our current challenging wildland fire world, and fit well into the High Reliability Organizational concept. (retired in 2014)
  • Helmreich, Robert L., et al. Cockpit Resource Management. Academic Press. 1993.
    The concepts presented in this book are based on processes that commercial airline pilots use to avoid or mitigate human errors that occur during flight operations. These concepts have adapted by many other high-risk environments as "Crew Resource Management" (CRM). (retired in 2014)
  • Johnson, Spencer M. D. Who Moved My Cheese? G.P. Putnam’s Sons. 1998.
    A funny story about four individuals in search of "what they need." The book asks the reader to answer two basic questions: One, "what makes you happy" and two, "what are you willing to do to get it?" (retired in 2005)
  • Kamler, Kenneth. Surviving the Extremes: What Happens to the Human Body at the Limits of Endurance. Penguin Books. 2004
    Kamler discusses the physiology of the human body at the limits of survival. It contains some amazing stories of survival and perseverance in the face of disaster. How people get into these situations and how they react is also discussed. The book ties in well with Deep Survival. (retired in 2014)
  • Kotter, John P. Leading Change. Harvard Business School Press. 1996.
    Geared toward managers and business students, this leadership guide identifies an eight-step process that companies must go through to achieve their goals. It also details change issues, the force behind successful change and future trends for organizations. To help illustrate principles, the author provides interesting stories and examples. (retired in 2014)
  • Lansing, Alfred. Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage. Carroll & Graf. 1959.
    The story of Ernest Shackleton's abortive 1914 attempt to reach the South Pole is another great study in leadership. Shackleton's ship, Endurance, was trapped and then crushed by pack ice, leaving Shackleton and his 27 men adrift on ice floes. The story of how Shackleton ultimately brings all of his men to safety at South Georgia Island is an epic of survival and a portrait of outstanding leadership in the face of adversity. (retired in 2011)
  • Leschak, Peter M. Ghosts of the Fireground: Echoes of the Great Peshtigo Fire and the Calling of a Wildland Firefighter. HarperCollins. 2002.
    Mr. Leschak has been a wildland firefighter for more than twenty years. In this account he weaves the tragic story of the 1878 Peshtigo Fire with his own career as a wildland firefighter. This account takes the fears and triumphs that all first time wildland fire small unit leaders encounter and relates them through the historical account of Father Pernin, a Catholic priest who, through good leadership values and principles, led the many survivors of the great Peshtigo fire to safety and survival. (retired in 2014)
  • Leschak, Peter M. Hellroaring: The Life and Times of a Fire Bum. North Star Press. 1994.
    Leschak retells his experiences with the Minnesota DNR and the U.S. Forest Service, on Type II crews and helitack crews, providing a view of firefighter culture from the ground level.
  • Maxwell, John C. Ethics 101. Center Street Press. 2005.
    Maxwell discusses the essential role that personal ethics and integrity play in strong leadership. (retired in 2014)
  • McDonald, Charles B. Company Commander. Burford Books. 1999. (retired in 2014)
    This is McDonald's account of his experiences in an American Rifle Company Commander in France during the Second World War. As a novice officer, fresh from the states, he led Normandy veterans through the Battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany. This is a gripping story about the development of leadership under fire. (retired in 2005)
  • Newman, Major General Aubrey Follow Me I: The Human Element in Leadership. Presidio Press. 1981.
    This book was based on Major General Newman column in "Army Magazine" called, "Forward Edge." The column ran for 20 years. This book emphasizes the importance of the human element in leadership. It is aimed at young lieutenants and NCOs at the platoon level, who are first time leaders. This is a first in a series of three books - Follow Me II, published in 1982, emphasizes leading and mentoring; Follow Me III, published in 1987, encourages senior leaders to remember where they came from and to consider the human element in their leadership actions. (retired in 2011)
  • Okray, Randy and Thomas Lubnau. CRM for the Fire Service. Penn Well Corp. 2004.
    Okray and Thomas talk to both structural and wildland firefighters by discussing human errors on the fireground and how firefighters react to stressful situations. They present a variety of methods and tools to mitigate these problems and help provide for safer and more effective operations. (retired in 2014)
  • Palmer, Charles. Fired Up! The Optimal Performance Guide for Wildland Firefighters. Birch Grove Publishing. 2007.
    Written by a longtime helitack and engine crewmember and smokejumper, and current University of Montana professor specializing in health and human performance, Palmer discusses the physical, psychological and environmental factors that influence how firefighters perform. Much of his work is based on extensive interviews and study of current fireline leaders and firefighters. This book includes many strategies and tips for achieving peak performance physically, mentally, socially, and emotionally amidst the rigors and stress of wildland firefighting. (retired in 2014)
  • Perrow, Charles. Normal Accidents. Princeton University Press. 1999.
    Perrow analyzes the social side of accident occurrence in high-risk technologies. He argues that designing more warnings and safeguards into these environments fails because this increases system complexity and makes failure inevitable. He, also, describes a framework for analyzing risks and building organizations that can identify and mitigate them. (retired in 2014)
  • Pyne, Stephen J. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton University Press. 1982.
    From prehistory to the present-day, Pyne explores the history of fire on the American landscape and the efforts of successive cultures to master fire and use it to shape the landscape. (retired in 2014)
  • Pyne, Stephen J. Fire on the Rim: A Firefighter's Season at the Grand Canyon. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1989.
    Pyne's story of a fire season on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Based on his 15 seasons as a seasonal firefighter with the National Park Service, this book is a good introduction to the insular culture of western firefighters. (retired in 2014)
  • Pyne, Stephen J. Tending Fire: Coping with America's Wildland Fires. Island Press. 2004
    Pyne discusses the past history of fire suppression and management and directions we might take in the future. He discusses options that exist for dealing with fire while still recognizing its ecological importance. Pyne calls for important reforms in wildland fire management that incorporates recognition of its biological role and the impacts of climate change and WUI. (retired in 2014)
  • Pyne, Stephen J. World Fire: The Culture of Fire on Earth. Henry Holt. 1995.
    Pyne gives a global view of the fire history, ecology, and culture from around the world. Countries covered include: Australia, South Africa, Brazil, Sweden, Greece, Iberia, Russia, India, and Antarctica. He lets the student of fire see how the United States fire culture and international fire cultures intermix and intertwine. (retired in 2014)
  • Pyne, Stephen J. The Year of the Fires. Viking Penguin. 2001.
    Pyne provides an account of the dramatic and overwhelming fire season of 1910 in which two million acres burned and hundreds of lives were lost in the Northern Rockies and the Great Lake states. This fire season set the stage for establishing large, expensive, and ultimately, extremely efficient federal and state wildland fire suppression organizations. (retired in 2014)
  • Reason, James. Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Ashgate. 1997.
    Reason provides a fascinating and valuable look at how accidents occur in technology-oriented organizations and how latent conditions and active failures at all levels of an organization can contribute to disaster. Should be required reading for fire and aviation managers at all levels. (retired in 2014)
  • Rich, Ben R. and Leo Janos. Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Years at Lockheed. Little, Brown & Co. 1996.
    Lockheed's Advanced Development Project has set standards for the aerospace industry for half a century, repeatedly developing and fielding breakthrough aviation technology. Janos describes the unique management framework and leadership style that freed engineers and technicians to accomplish astounding results. (retired in 2011)
  • Riley, Pat. The Winner Within: A Life Plan for Team Players. Berkley Trade; Reprint edition. 1994.
    He's one of America's greatest coaches, known for inspiring the champions of professional basketball to work as a team. The Winner Within is his game plan for team players in all of life, not just on the court but in business, at home, and in personal achievement. Here are his winning strategies that inspire change, motivate teamwork, and reveal the winner within us all. (retired in 2011)
  • Ruggero, Ed. Duty First. HarperCollins. 2001.
    An account of a year inside one of America's premier schools for leadership - the United States Military Academy at West Point. The author, a former West Point graduate and professor, takes a critical look at how this elite school builds leaders for the future. (retired in 2005)
  • *Russo, J. Edward, and Shoemaker, Paul H. Decision Traps: The Ten Barriers to Brilliant Decision-Making and How to Overcome Them. Fireside. 1990.
    Becoming a good decision-maker is like training to be a top athlete: Just as the best coaches use training methods to help athletes develop proper techniques and avoid mistakes, The authors have developed a program that can help you avoid "decision traps"-the ten common decision-making errors that most people make over and over again. (retired in 2014)
  • Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. Random House. 1974.
    This Pulitzer Prize winning novel tells the story of the Battle of Gettysburg from the point of view of key leaders on both the Union and Confederate sides. In addition to describing the human elements of leadership at all levels in a large organization, this gripping story demonstrates the impact leadership successes and failures can have on history. (retired in 2014)
  • Smith, Perry M. Taking Charge: A Practical Guide for Leaders. DIANE Publishing. 1995.
    This is a practical guide for leaders written in a clear, crisp style. Helps the leader set standards for integrity and excellence through the use of case studies and checklists. (retired in 2011)
  • Snook, Scott A. Friendly Fire. Princeton University Press. 2000.
    Snook provides an in-depth investigation of the accidental shootdown of two U.S. Black Hawk helicopters by two U.S. F-16s over the northern Iraq no-fly zone. He looks at the human and organizational factors at all levels in large high reliability organizations that can contribute to fatal accidents despite multiple layers of rules and procedures designed to prevent them. The reader will see many similarities to interagency fire organizations, how we try to defend against accidents, and how and why we fail. (retired in 2014)
  • Stewart, George R. Fire. University of Nebraska Press. 1948 (Reprinted in 1984).
    This novel written in 1948 describes the mythical Spitcat Fire that has a life span of 11 days. This is a vivid and dramatic account of man pitted against one of his worst enemies. The story describes the effect of this desperate fight upon the bodies and minds of the men and women involved in the mythic Spitcat Fire. (retired in 2005)
  • Sun Tzu. Translation by Thomas Cleary. The Art of War. Shambhala Publications. 1991.
    Written over 2000 years ago by a Chinese warrior-philosopher. This timeless book has been studied through the ages by military leaders, politicians, and business executives. The writings of Sun Tzu apply to competition and conflict on every level from interpersonal to international. This is a book not only of war, but also of peace. Above all, it is an excellent tool for understanding the very roots of conflict and resolution. (retired in 2005)
  • Tannen, Deborah. The Argument Culture: Stopping America's War of Words. Random House. 1999.
    Tannen examines how we communicate publicly and how often we approach issues as a fight between two opposing sides. Understanding how and why we communicate in certain ways can help us improve our attempts to understand others and be understood ourselves. (retired in 2014)
  • Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand: Men and Women in Conversation. Random House. 1991.
    Tannen explains women and men have distinctly different conversational styles based upon gender and cultural conditioning. Understanding and accepting these differences can lead to improved communications between women and men whether on the fireline or in the office. (retired in 2014)
  • Taylor, Murry. Jumping Fire. Harvest. 2000.
    Taylor was a USFS and BLM smokejumper for over a quarter of a century. This memoir follows one fire season from Alaska to the Lower 48. Taylor captures the atmosphere and attitude of smokejumping and initial attack firefighting. (retired in 2014)
  • Thoele, Michael. Fireline: The Summer Battles of the West. Fulcrum. 1995. Thoele, a journalism professor at the University of Oregon, looks at the subculture of modern firefighters and western wildfires, and describes the activities of various fire crews and their methods for fighting rural and urban forest fires, including chapters on the future of firefighting, women firefighters, and numerous photos. (retired in 2014)
  • Useem, Michael. The Leadership Moment: Nine True Stories of Triumph and Disaster and Their Lessons for All of Us. Crown Publishing Group. 1999.
    This book, authored by the Director of the Wharton Center for Leadership and Change Management, is an easy read with interesting, compelling stories about critical situations with "turning points" where action or inaction by leaders makes all the difference. Two of the well known case studies included in this book are Wag Dodge's actions on the Mann Gulch fire and Eugene Kranz's leadership during the Apollo 13 recovery effort. (retired in 2014)
  • Weick, Karl E. and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe. Managing the Unexpected. Jossey-Bass. 2001.
    Subtitled "Assuring High Performance in an Age of Complexity," Weick and Sutcliffe look at how high reliability organizations (HROs) like aircraft carriers, nuclear power plants, and firefighting crews manage high-risk operations. A second edition was published in 2007 which contains information on the wildland fire community’s attempts to establish and practice the principles of HROs. (retired in 2014)
  • Welch, Jack and Suzy. Winning. Harper Business Press. 2005.
    During his forty-year career at General Electric, Welch led the company to year-after-year success around the globe, in multiple markets, against brutal competition. His honest, be-the-best style of management with relentless focus on people, teamwork, and profits became the gold standard in business. His optimistic, no excuses-get-it-done mindset is riveting and fits well with current wildland fire leadership challenges. (retired in 2014)
  • *Widener, Chris. The Art of Influence: Persuading Others Begins With You. Doubleday. 2008
    The author uses an easy-to-understand parable to convey a powerful message about using the "art of influence to persuade others-beginning with yourself." His approach is simple, yet extremely thought out and life-changing if applied. He addresses how character and skills coupled with virtue and talent add to the art of influence. He presents readers with four "golden rules of influence" that if lived by provide a "richer" life. (retired in 2014)

Articles, Reports and Websites

  • Putnam, Ted, et al. Findings from the Wildland Firefighters Human Factors Workshop. Missoula Technology and Development Center publication # 9551 2855. 1995. Ordering information available at
    Subtitled "Improving Wildland Firefighter Performance under Stressful, Risky Conditions: Toward Better Decisions on the Fireline and More Resilient Organizations." This booklet contains a number of excellent articles on the human factors that impact how firefighters perform on the fireline when fatigued and under stress.
  • Putnam, Ted. The Collapse of Decision Making and Organizational Structure on Storm King Mountain. Missoula Technology and Development Center. 1995. Available online at
    Following Dr. Karl Weick's lead, Putnam analyzes the human performance at the South Canyon fire and the human and organizational failures that may have contributed to the fatalities.
  • Vaughan, Diane. Targets for Firefighting Safety: Lessons from the Challenger Case. Presented at the Interagency Hotshot Crew Workshop. 1996. Available online at
    Based on her extensive research regarding NASA's culture and the decisions leading up to the launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger, Vaughan discusses the role that organizational culture can play in affecting firefighter performance and safety.
  • Weick, Karl E. The Collapse of Sensemaking in Organizations: The Mann Gulch Disaster. Administrative Science Quarterly, Volume 38, pp. 628-652. 1993. Available online at
    Weick analyzes the human factors that contributed to 13 fatalities on the 1949 Mann Gulch fire. Rather than reviewing fire behavior, weather, fuels and equipment, Weick analyzes how the smokejumpers thought, communicated, and acted as they tried to engage the fire and ultimately fled from the fire.